Changi airport, Singapore

Ground improvement under the second runway of Changi airport

For the construction on the second runway of Changi airport, 7 m of hydraulic fill were placed over varying layers of both old and recent marine clays. Settlement of these clays could amount to several metres over a ten year period. The combination of dynamic compaction and vertical drains up to a depth of 43 m (a first at the time) convinced the local authorities (PSA – port of Singapore Authority) of the effectiveness of Menard techniques.